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ASSERT admits to add to symbolic mode RLISP code assertions (partly) specifying types of the arguments and results of RLISP expr procedures. These types can be associated with functions testing the validity of the respective arguments during runtime.

Author: Thomas Sturm.

The package is loaded using load_package or load!-package in algebraic or symbolic mode, resp. There is a central switch assertcheck, which is off by default. With assertcheck off, all type definitions and assertions described in the sequel are ignored and have the status of comments. For verification of the assertions it most be turned on (dynamically) before the first relevant type definition or assertion.

ASSERT aims at the dynamic analysis of RLISP expr procedure in symbolic mode. All uses of typedef and assert discussed in the following have to take place in symbolic mode. There is, in contrast, a final print routine assert_analyze that is available in both symbolic and algebraic mode.

Here are some examples for definitions of types:

typedef any;

typedef number checked by numberp;

typedef sf checked by sfpx;

typedef sq checked by sqp;

typedef number checked by numberp;

typedef sf checked by sfpx;

typedef sq checked by sqp;

The first one defines a type any, which is not possibly checked by any function. This is useful, e.g., for functions which admit any argument at one position but at others rely on certain types or guarantee certain result types, e.g.,

procedure cellcnt(a);

% a is any, returns a number.

if not pairp a then 0 else cellcnt car a + cellcnt cdr a + 1;

% a is any, returns a number.

if not pairp a then 0 else cellcnt car a + cellcnt cdr a + 1;

The other ones define a type number, which can be checked by the RLISP function numberp, a type sf for standard forms, which can be checked by the function sfpx provided by ASSERT, and similarly a type for standard quotients.

All type checking functions take one argument and return extended Boolean, i.e., non-nil iff their argument is of the corresponding type.

Having defined types, we can formulate assertions on expr procedures in terms of these types:

assert cellcnt: (any) -> number;

assert addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq;

assert addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq;

Note that on the argument side parenthesis are mandatory also with only one
argument. This notation is inspired by Haskell but avoids the intuition of
currying.^{1}

Assertions can be dynamically checked only for expr procedures. When making assertions for other types of procedures, a warning is issued and the assertion has the status of a comment.

It is important that assertions via assert come after the definitions of the used types via typedef and also after the definition of the procedures they make assertions on.

A natural order for adding type definitions and assertions to the source code files would be to have all typedefs at the beginning of a module and assertions immediately after the respective functions. Fig. 16.1 illustrates this. Note that for dynamic checking of the assertions the switch assertcheck has to be on during the translation of the module; i.e., either when reading it with in or during compilation. For compilation this can be achieved by commenting in the on assertcheck at the beginning or by parameterizing the Lisp-specific compilation scripts in a suitable way.

An alternative option is to have type definitions and assertions for specific packages right after load_package in batch files as illustrated in Fig. 16.2.

module sizetools;

load!-package ’assert;

% on assertcheck;

typedef any;

typedef number checked by number;

procedure cellcnt(a);

% a is any, returns a number.

if not pairp a then 0 else cellcnt car a + cellcnt cdr a + 1;

assert cellcnt: (any) -> number;

% ...

endmodule;

end; % of file

load!-package ’assert;

% on assertcheck;

typedef any;

typedef number checked by number;

procedure cellcnt(a);

% a is any, returns a number.

if not pairp a then 0 else cellcnt car a + cellcnt cdr a + 1;

assert cellcnt: (any) -> number;

% ...

endmodule;

end; % of file

load_package sizetools;

load_package assert;

on assertcheck;

lisp <<

typedef any;

typedef number checked by numberp;

assert cellcnt: (any) -> number

>>;

% ... computations ...

assert_analyze();

end; % of file

load_package assert;

on assertcheck;

lisp <<

typedef any;

typedef number checked by numberp;

assert cellcnt: (any) -> number

>>;

% ... computations ...

assert_analyze();

end; % of file

Recall that with the switch assertcheck off at translation time, all type definitions and assertions have the status of comments. We are now going to discuss how these statements are processed with assertcheck on.

typedef marks the type identifier as a valid type and possibly associates the given typechecking function with it. Technically, the property list of the type identifier is used for both purposes.

assert encapsulates the procedure that it asserts on into another one, which checks the types of the arguments and of the result to the extent that there are typechecking functions given. Whenever some argument does not pass the test by the typechecking function, there is a warning message issued. Furthermore, the following numbers are counted for each asserted function:

- The number of overall calls,
- the number of calls with at least one assertion violation,
- the number of assertion violations.

These numbers can be printed anytime in either symbolic or algebraic mode using the command assert_analyze(). This command at the same time resets all the counters.

Fig. 16.3 shows an interactive sample session.

1: symbolic$

2* load_package assert$

3* on assertcheck$

4* typedef sq checked by sqp;

sqp

5* assert negsq: (sq) -> sq;

+++ negsq compiled, 13 + 20 bytes

(negsq)

6* assert addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq;

+++ addsq compiled, 14 + 20 bytes

(addsq)

7* addsq(simp ’x,negsq simp ’y);

((((x . 1) . 1) ((y . 1) . -1)) . 1)

8* addsq(simp ’x,negsq numr simp ’y);

*** assertion negsq: (sq) -> sq violated by arg1 (((y . 1) . 1))

*** assertion negsq: (sq) -> sq violated by result (((y . -1) . -1))

*** assertion addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq violated by arg2 (((y . -1) . -1))

*** assertion addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq violated by result (((y . -1) . -1))

(((y . -1) . -1))

9* assert_analyze()$

------------------------------------------------------------------------

function #calls #bad calls #assertion violations

------------------------------------------------------------------------

addsq 2 1 2

negsq 2 1 2

------------------------------------------------------------------------

sum 4 2 4

------------------------------------------------------------------------

2* load_package assert$

3* on assertcheck$

4* typedef sq checked by sqp;

sqp

5* assert negsq: (sq) -> sq;

+++ negsq compiled, 13 + 20 bytes

(negsq)

6* assert addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq;

+++ addsq compiled, 14 + 20 bytes

(addsq)

7* addsq(simp ’x,negsq simp ’y);

((((x . 1) . 1) ((y . 1) . -1)) . 1)

8* addsq(simp ’x,negsq numr simp ’y);

*** assertion negsq: (sq) -> sq violated by arg1 (((y . 1) . 1))

*** assertion negsq: (sq) -> sq violated by result (((y . -1) . -1))

*** assertion addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq violated by arg2 (((y . -1) . -1))

*** assertion addsq: (sq,sq) -> sq violated by result (((y . -1) . -1))

(((y . -1) . -1))

9* assert_analyze()$

------------------------------------------------------------------------

function #calls #bad calls #assertion violations

------------------------------------------------------------------------

addsq 2 1 2

negsq 2 1 2

------------------------------------------------------------------------

sum 4 2 4

------------------------------------------------------------------------

As discussed above, the switch assertcheck controls at translation time whether or not assertions are dynamically checked.

There is a switch assertbreak, which is off by default. When on, there are not only warnings issued for assertion violations but the computations is interrupted with a corresponding error.

The statistical counting of procedure calls and assertion violations is toggled by the switch assertstatistics, which is on by default.

The encapsulating functions introduced with assertions are automatically compiled.

We have experimentally checked assertions on the standard quotient arithmetic addsq, multsq, quotsq, invsq, negsq for the test file taylor.tst of the TAYLOR package. For CSL we observe a slowdown of factor 3.2, and for PSL we observe a slowdown of factor 1.8 in this particular example, where there are 323 750 function calls checked altogether.

The ASSERT package is considered an analysis and debugging tool. Production system should as a rule not run with dynamic assertion checking. For critical applications, however, the slowdown might be even acceptable.

Our assertions could be used also for a static type analysis of source code. In that case, the type checking functions become irrelevant. On the other hand, the introduction of variouse unchecked types becomes meaningful.

In a model, where the source code is systematically annotated with assertions, it is technically no problem to generalize the specification of procedure definitions such that assertions become implicit. For instance, one could optionally admit procedure definitions like the following:

procedure cellcnt(a:any):number;

if not pairp a then 0 else cellcnt car a + cellcnt cdr a + 1;

if not pairp a then 0 else cellcnt car a + cellcnt cdr a + 1;

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